Gargantuan Vocabulary List Part III

furlough A leave of absence from duty (granted especially to a soldier)

furnace An enclosed chamber in which heat is produced to warm

buildings, destroy refuse, smelt or refine ores, etc.

further To a greater distance; in addition; moreover

fury A feeling of intense anger

futile Useless, ineffectual, vain

futility Uselessness

gallery A room for the exhibition of works of art

galloping Moving or running in the mode called a gallop (as a horse); to go

at a gallop; to run or move with speed

gap A conspicuous disparity or difference as between two figures; a

break or separation; a deficient area

garbled Lacking orderly continuity; confused

gargantuan Of great mass; huge and bulky

garish Offensively or distressingly bright; tastelessly showy; gaudy

garnish To add decorative or savory touches to (food or drink)

gauge To measure or to ascertain the contents or the capacity of

gender Sex (male or female)

generalization A general statement, law, principle, or proposition

generalize To draw from specific cases for more general cases; to speak in

vague or indefinite statements

generates Composes, creates, or brings out by intellectual or physical effort

generation A group of individuals born and living contemporaneously

generous Willing to give and share unstintingly

genesis The origin or coming into being of something

genial Diffusing warmth and friendliness

geniality Sympathy or friendliness

geology The study of the history of the earth as recorded in rocks

germinate To begin to grow

gesture Something done as an indication of intention; to show, express or

direct through movement

gibberish Rapid and inarticulate speech

gingham A clothing fabric usually of yarn-dyed cotton in plain weave

glacial Devoid of warmth and cordiality; expressive of unfriendliness or

disdain; extremely cold

glamorous Full of glamour

glimmer A faint, unsteady light; feeble, scattered rays of light

glimmering Appearing indistinctly with a faintly luminous quality

gloom To look, feel, or act sullen or despondent

glossy Having a smooth, gleaming surface

glutton One given habitually to greedy and voracious eating and drinking

goad To provoke, as by constant criticism

goal The end toward which effort is directed

goggles Spectacles worn to protect the eyes

gossip Rumor or report of an intimate nature

gourmand A person who is excessively fond of eating and drinking

govern To impose regulations on; to direct or strongly influence the

behavior of; to exercise authority over

governmental Dealing with the affairs or structure of government, politics, or

the state

graceful Characterized by beauty of movement, style, form, etc.;

suggesting taste, ease, and wealth; elegant

gracious Doing or producing good; exhibiting courtesy and politeness

graciously In a kind and courteous manner

gradual Proceeding by steps or degrees

graduation An academic exercise in which diplomas are conferred

grain Dry seedlike fruit produced by the cereal grasses

grammar The study of forms of speech and their relationship to one

another; the art concerned with the right use and application of

the rules of a language

grandiose Impressive because of unnecessary largeness or grandeur

granite A very hard natural igneous rock formation of visibly crystalline


grant To give the possession or title of by a deed

graph A diagram that represents the variation of a variable in

comparison with that of one or more other variables

graphic Of or relating to the visual or descriptive arts, esp. writing and


grass-roots Of or involving the common people as constituting a fundamental

politico economic group

gratification A source of satisfaction or pleasure

gratitude The state of being grateful; thankfulness

gratuitous Given freely; unearned; unwarranted

gratuity A relatively small amount of money given for services rendered;

an award given without claim or obligation

gravitation A force manifested by acceleration toward each other of two free

material particles or bodies

gravity The gravitational attraction of the mass of the earth, the moon, or

a planet for bodies at or near its surface

gregarious Enjoying the company of others; sociable

grief Intense sorrow caused by loss of a loved one

grim Ghastly, repellent, or sinister in character

grimy Full of grime; begrimed; dirty; foul

grind To reduce to powder or small fragments by friction

gritty Having strong qualities of tough, uncompromising realism

grove A small growth of trees without underbrush; a small cultivated

wood without undergrowth

gruff Brusque, surly and forbidding; deep and harsh sounding as if

from shouting, illness, or emotion

guidance Direction or advice as to a decision or course of action; the act of

guiding or showing the way

gullible Easily deceived or tricked

gush To emit a sudden, copious flow

gushing Making an effusive display of affection or enthusiasm

gymnastic A physical feat or contortion

habitable Capable of being inhabited or dwelt in

habitat The type of environment in which an organism or group normally

lives or occurs

habitually Regularly; as a matter of established practice

hackneyed Overfamiliar through overuse; trite

hail To praise vociferously

halt To stop moving; to stop from happening or developing; to come to


harassed Troubled persistently especially with petty annoyances; annoyed;

harried; pestered

harbor A part of a body of water protected and deep enough to furnish


harbored Given shelter or refuge to

hardiest Most inured to fatigue or hardships; strongest; most capable of


hardships Things that cause or entail suffering or privation

harmonious Musically concordant

harmony Compatibility in opinion and action

harp A plucked stringed instrument consisting of a resonator, an

arched or angled neck supported by a post, and strings of graded

length running perpendicular to the soundboard

harvest The act or process of gathering in a crop

hatch To emerge from the eggs of birds or reptiles

haughty Blatantly and disdainfully proud

hazardous Involving risk or danger

hearing The faculty or sense by which sound is perceived; a listening to

facts and evidence

heavily To a considerable degree; with great force; slowly as if burdened

by much weight

heckler Someone who tries to embarrass with gibes, questions and


hedonist Someone motivated by desires for sensual pleasures

heed To mind; to pay careful attention to

heinous Shockingly brutal or cruel; atrocious; grievous; monstrous

heir One who inherits or is entitled to inherit property

hem A cloth border doubled back and stitched down

hence (Used to introduce a logical conclusion) from that fact or reason,

or as a result

heritage Something transmitted by or acquired from a predecessor

heroine A woman possessing heroic qualities

hesitant Unable to act or decide quickly or firmly

hesitate To pause or hold back in uncertainty or unwillingness

hibernate To pass the season of winter asleep

hibernation The torpid or resting state in which some animals pass the winter

hierarchy A series of ordered groupings of people or things within a system

highlight v: to center attention on; n: something of major significance or

special interest

high-spirited Joyously unrestrained

hilarious Marked by or causing boisterous merriment or convulsive


hinder To prevent the progress or accomplishment of

hindsight Perception of the nature of an event after it has happened

hipster Person who is unusually aware of and interested in new and

unconventional patterns

hiss A fricative sound uttered as an expression of dislike or contempt

historian A student or writer of history

historical Belonging to the past

history The discipline that records and interprets past events

hitchhiking Traveling by securing free rides from passing vehicles

hoard A supply or fund stored up and often hidden away

hobby A pursuit outside one’s regular occupation, engaged in especially

for relaxation

hoist To raise or haul up with or as if with mechanical help

holistic Emphasizing the organic or functional relation between parts and

the whole

honor To regard or treat with esteem or respect; to revere

horizon The apparent junction of earth and sky

horizontally In a manner parallel to, in the plane of, or operating in a plane

parallel to the horizon or to a base line

hospitable Favorable to life and growth; disposed to treat guests and

strangers with cordiality and generosity

hospitalize To admit into a hospital

host A very large number; one that receives or entertains guests


hostile Marked by malevolence

hostility Deep-seated, usually mutual ill will

hub The central part of a car wheel (or fan, propeller, etc.) through

which the shaft or axle passes; the center of a city

hue The quality of a color

humanity The quality or state of being humane or human

humdrum Not challenging; dull and lacking excitement; tediously repetitious

or lacking in variety; monotonous

humidifier A device for keeping the atmosphere moist in a room

humiliated Humbled; made to feel uncomfortable because of shame or

wounded pride

humility A disposition to be humble; a lack of pride

humorous Characterized by wit or comedy

hunch n: An impression that something might be the case; intuition;

suspicion; v: to arch one’s back

hypocrisy A feigning to be what one is not or to believe what one does not

hypocrite A person who professes beliefs and opinions that they do not hold

hypothesis A concept that is not yet verified, but that if true would explain

certain facts or phenomena; a theory; an opinion based on

incomplete evidence

hypothetical Being or involving an assumption or concession made for the

sake of argument

icon An object of uncritical devotion

iconoclast One who attacks cherished beliefs or institutions

idealistic Characterized by forming ideals or living under their influence

idealist Someone guided more by ideals than by practical considerations

ideally For best results; in an ideal situation

ideals Standards of perfection or beauty

identical Exactly alike

identify To establish the identity of someone or something

identity The distinct personality of an individual regarded as a persisting


ideology A manner or the content of thinking characteristic of an

individual, group, or culture

ideologue An often blindly partisan advocate or adherent of a particular


idiosyncrasy A peculiarity of constitution or temperament; an individualizing

characteristic or quality

idol A material object that is worshipped as a god; someone who is

adored blindly and excessively

idolatrous Relating to or practicing idolatry; blindly or excessively devoted or


idolized Loved or admired to excess

ignorance Lack of knowledge or education

ignorant Lacking knowledge or comprehension

illegality Unlawfulness by virtue of violating some legal statute

illicit Contrary to or forbidden by law

illness Sickness; malady

illuminate To make bright with light; to make comprehensible

illusion A misapprehension of the true state of affairs

illustrate To make clear by giving or by serving as an example or instance

illustration An example that helps make something clear; a single item of

information that is representative of a type; a visual


imagination A mental faculty forming images or concepts of things or events

not present to the senses

imaginative Marked by independence and creativity in thought or action

imbue To permeate or influence

imitated Followed as a pattern, model, or example; copied

imitation Something produced as a copy

imitative Marked by or given to imitation; (of words) formed in imitation of

a natural sound; not original

immediate Existing without intervening space or substance

immersion A state of being covered by a liquid (like water)

immigrant A person who comes to a country to take up permanent residence

imminent Ready to take place

immobility Motionlessness

immoral Conflicting with generally or traditionally held moral principles

immortal Exempt from death

immunized Rendered unsusceptible to a disease

impact The force of impression of one thing on another; a significant or

major effect

impartial Not favoring one more than another; treating all alike;

unprejudiced; unbiased

impartiality An inclination to weigh both views or opinions equally;


impeccable Without fault or error; faultless; immaculate

impede To hinder; to block passage through; to obstruct

impending About to occur

impenitent Not remorseful or repentant

imperceptible Extremely slight, gradual, or subtle

imperceptive Unable to perceive

imperial Of, relating to, befitting, or suggestive of an empire or an emperor

imperialism The policy, practice, or advocacy of extending the power and

dominion of a nation

impersonal Having no personal reference or connection

imperturbable Not easily excited or upset; marked by extreme calm and


imperviousness Impenetrability

impetuous Characterized by undue haste and lack of thought or deliberation

impious Lacking piety or reverence; lacking due respect or dutifulness

implanted Fixed or set securely or deeply

implausible Having a quality that provokes disbelief; highly imaginative but

unlikely; farfetched

implement v: To make use of; n: an instrument or tool

implemented Put into execution

implicit Implied though not directly expressed

imply To express indirectly

impolite Not polite; not of polished manners; wanting in good manners;

discourteous; uncivil; rude

impostor A person who assumes a false character or pretends to be

someone else

impractical Incapable of dealing sensibly or prudently

impregnable Incapable of being taken by assault; unconquerable

impression A characteristic or feature resulting from some influence; an often

indistinct or imprecise notion or remembrance

impressionable Readily or easily influenced; suggestible

imprison To lock up in jail; to confine as if in a prison

improbability The state of being or the degree to which something is unlikely to

be true or to occur

improbable Not likely to be true or to occur or to have occurred

improperly In a manner not in accord with fact, truth, or right procedure

improvisation An unplanned act or performance; the act of making, inventing,

or arranging|offhand

improvise To perform without preparation

impulse A sudden desire; a force that makes something move

impure Not pure; not clean; dirty; foul; filthy

impurity Something that is impure or makes something else impure or

unclean; the state of being impure

impute To attribute to a source or cause

inaccessible Capable of being reached only with great difficulty or not at all;

not capable of being obtained

inaccurate Not according to truth; inexact; incorrect; erroneous

inactivity The state of being inactive; idleness

inadequate Not capable; lacking power, capacity, or competence

inadmissible Not deserving to be admitted

inadvertent Not paying attention or focusing on a matter; unintentional

inadvisable Not recommended

inane Lacking significance, meaning, or point

inarticulate Unable to speak distinctly or express oneself clearly

inaudible Impossible to hear; imperceptible by the ear

incantation A ritual recitation of magical words or sounds

incensed Angered; enraged

incentive Something that incites or has a tendency to incite to

determination or action

incident An occurrence of an action or situation that is a separate unit of


incidental Occurring as a chance consequence

incinerate To reduce to ashes by burning; to thoroughly consume

incinerator A furnace for incinerating (especially to dispose of refuse)

incisive Impressively direct and decisive

incite To move to action

incitement The state or condition of being spurred to action

inclination An attitude of mind, especially one that favors one alternative

over others

incline A sloping plane

incoherent Lacking orderly continuity, arrangement, or relevance

incompatible Not easy to combine harmoniously

incompetent Not qualified or suited for a purpose; showing lack of skill or


incongruity The quality or state of being not in harmony

incongruous Inappropriate or unsuitable; incompatible; disagreeing

inconsequential Unimportant

inconsistency Discordance in respect to sentiment or action

inconsistent Not compatible with another fact or claim

incorporate To unite or work into something already existent so as to form an

indistinguishable whole

incorrigible Unable to be reformed or amended

incremental Increasing gradually by regular degrees or additions

incriminate To accuse; to charge with a crime or fault; to criminate

incubate To cause (as an idea) to develop

incumbent The official who holds an office

indebted Owing gratitude or recognition to another

indecorous Lacking propriety and good taste in manners and conduct

indefatigable Incapable of being fatigued; untiring

indefinitely Not precisely; in a manner without exact limits

indelible Unable to be removed, washed away, or erased

independent Free; not subject to control by others; not relying on others; not


indeterminate Not precisely established; not fixed or known in advance

indication Signal that serves to suggest something

indictment A formal written statement charging a person with an offense

indifferent Marked by a lack of interest

indignation A scornful anger at supposed unjust or unfair conduct or


indirect Not direct in manner, language, behavior or action; roundabout

indirection Procedure or action that is not straightforward or direct

indiscernible Difficult or impossible to perceive

indiscriminate Promiscuous; random; not marked by careful distinction

indispensable Absolutely or vitally necessary

indistinct Not clearly defined or easy to perceive or understand

individualistic Marked by or expressing qualities that distinguish one person

from another

indomitable Impossible to subdue

induce To call forth or bring about by influence or stimulation

inducement A positive motivational influence; an incentive; the act of bringing

about a desired result

indulgent Excessive or unrestrained in gratification of appetites, desires, or


indulging Yielding to the desire of

industrial Relating to or resulting from industry

industrious Characterized by hard work and perseverance; working hard to

promote an enterprise

ineffable Defying expression or description; too sacred to be uttered

inefficacious Lacking the power to produce a desired effect

inefficient Not producing desired results; wasteful; lacking the ability or skill

to perform

effectively; inadequate

inept Not elegant or graceful in expression; generally incompetent and


inequities Injustices by virtue of not being fair and equitable

inevitability Something that is incapable of being avoided or evaded

inevitable Incapable of being avoided or prevented; invariably occurring or


inexorableness Mercilessness characterized by an unwillingness to relent or let


inextricably In a form incapable of being disentangled or solved

infamous Having a reputation of the worst kind

infamy A state of extreme dishonor; evil fame or public reputation

infection Contamination of the body by pathogenic microorganisms

causing inflammation

inferred Concluded by reasoning

infertile Not fertile or productive

infinity Time without end

inflammatory Tending to inflame or excite the senses

inflated Enlarged beyond truth or reasonableness; (informal) pretentious;

increased especially to abnormal levels

inflation The act of filling something with air

influence The power or capacity of causing an effect in indirect or intangible


influential Exerting or possessing the power to cause an effect

infusion The act of infusing, pouring in, or instilling

ingenious Marked by independence and creativity in thought or action;

showing inventiveness and skill

ingredient Food that is a component of a mixture in cooking

inhabitants Those that occupy a particular place regularly, routinely, or for a

period of time

inherent Involved in the constitution or essential character of something;

belonging by nature or habit

inherit To come into possession of or receive especially as a right or

divine portion

inhibit To check; to hold back; to restrain; to hinder; to discourage from

free or spontaneous activity

initiate To introduce into a society or organization

initiated Caused or facilitated the beginning of

injurious Tending to cause great harm

innate Not established by conditioning or learning; inherent; inborn

innocent Free from evil or guilt; lacking intent or capacity to injure

innocuous Having no bad effect; harmless

innovation A new device or process created by study and experimentation

innovative Characterized by the introduction of something new

inoculate To introduce a microorganism into; to produce immunity in by


inoculation Taking a vaccine as a precaution against contracting a disease

inquiry A request for information; an examination; an investigation

inquisitive Showing curiosity

inquisitor A questioner who is excessively harsh

insecure Not firm or firmly fixed; lacking self-confidence or assurance

insensitive Lacking feeling or tact

insight The power or act of seeing into a situation

insincere Not marked by genuineness; false

insipid Uninteresting; unchallenging

insistence The act or an instance of compelling attention

insolence The trait of being rude and impertinent; the inclination to take

liberties; an offensive, disrespectful, impudent act

insomnia An inability to sleep; chronic sleeplessness

inspection The act of viewing closely in critical appraisal

inspector One who inspects, views, or oversees

inspiration The action or power of moving the intellect or emotions

inspire To exert an animating, enlivening, or exalting influence on

instability The quality or state of being not firm or fixed

install To set up for use or service

instantaneously Without any delay

instigate To goad or urge forward

instinct A natural or inherent aptitude, impulse, or capacity

institute To originate and get established

institution Established order, method, or custom

instruction The action, practice, or profession of teaching

instructive Carrying a lesson

insular Relating to, characteristic of, or situated on an island; having or

reflecting a narrow viewpoint

insulate To protect from heat, cold, noise, etc. by surrounding with

insulating material; to place or set apart

insure To make certain of something

insurgency An organized rebellion aimed at overthrowing a government

insuring Making certain especially by taking necessary measures and


intangible Incapable of being perceived by the senses, especially the sense of


integrity Firm adherence to a code of especially moral or artistic values

intellectual Engaged in activity requiring the creative use of the intellect

intended Purposed; designed

intense Existing in an extreme degree

intensify To increase in extent or strength

intensity Extreme degree of strength, force, energy, or feeling

intent The state of mind with which an act is done

intention A determination to act in a certain way or to do a certain thing;

purpose; design

interchange Mutual interaction; the activity of reciprocating

interlocutors People who take part in dialogue or conversation

interlude An intervening period or episode; a brief show performed between

the sections of another performance

interminable Tiresomely long; seemingly without end

intermission A time interval during which there is a temporary cessation of


interpretation A particular adaptation or version of a work, method, or style; an

explanation of something not immediately obvious

interpreter Someone who uses art to represent something; someone who

translates from one language to another

interrelated Having a mutual or reciprocal connection

interrogation Formal and systematic questioning

intersecting Meeting and crossing mutually; sharing a common area

intersection A point where lines or roads cross; the set of elements common to

two or more sets

interval A space between objects, units, points, or states

interview A formal consultation usually to evaluate qualifications (as of a

prospective student or employee)

intimacy Something of a personal or private nature

intimation An indirect suggestion

intimidated Made timid or fearful as by threats; frightened into submission or


intransigent Refusing to compromise or to abandon an extreme position or

attitude; unsusceptible to persuasion

intrepid Invulnerable to fear or intimidation

intricacy Elaborately complex detail

intricate Highly involved; marked by complexity and richness of detail

intrigue To arouse the interest, desire, or curiosity of

intriguing Capable of arousing interest or curiosity

introspection An examination of one’s own thoughts and feelings

intrusive Tending to intrude (especially upon privacy)

intuition Quick and ready insight

intuitive Directly apprehended

intuitively By way of quick and ready insight or immediate apprehension

inundated Rendered powerless by an excessive amount or profusion of

something; overwhelmed

invalid Being without foundation or force in fact, truth, or law

invaluable Valuable beyond estimation; inestimable; priceless; precious

invariable Unchangeable

invent To devise; to contrive or produce for the first time

invention The creation of something in the mind

inversion The reversal of the normal order of words; the act of turning

inside out or upside down

invest To lay out (money or capital) in business with the view of

obtaining an income or profit

investigate To trace or track mentally; to search into; to inquire and examine

into with care and accuracy

investment Money or capital laid out in an enterprise with the expectation of


inveterate Firming established by long persistence or habit

invigorate To give life and energy and strength to

invincible Incapable of being overcome or subdued

inviolable That cannot be transgressed or dishonored; able to withstand


invisible Incapable of being seen; not perceptible by vision; not visible

ire Intense and usually openly displayed anger

iridescent Having or exhibiting a lustrous, rainbowlike play of color caused

by light refraction that tends to change as the angle of view


ironic Given to the use of words to express something other than and

especially the opposite of the literal meaning

irony A trope that involves incongruity between what is expected and

what occurs

irrational Not consistent with or using reason

irrationalist One who emphasizes intuition, instinct, feeling, or faith rather

than reason

irrelevant Not having significant and demonstrable bearing on the matter at


irreproachable Faultless; blameless; inculpable

irresolute Lacking decisiveness of character

irresponsible Showing lack of care for consequences

irreverence Disregard or disrespect of authority or character

irrigate To supply (as land) with water by artificial means

irritable Easily annoyed

irritate To provoke impatience, anger, or displeasure in; to tease; to

exasperate; to annoy

isolated Not close together in time; being or feeling set or kept apart from

others; quarantined

isolation A state of separation between persons or groups

issues Things coming forth from a specified source

itinerary An account of travels; a register of places and distances as a

guide to travelers

ivy A widely cultivated and ornamental climbing, prostrate, or

sometimes shrubby vine

jaded Tired or dulled through repetition or excess

jarring Affecting disagreeably

jauntiness Sprightly manner or appearance; liveliness

jazz American music genre developed especially from ragtime and


jeopardizing Exposing to loss or injury; risking

jog To run at a moderately swift pace

joint United; combined; concerted; joined

jollity The state of feeling jolly and jovial and full of good humor

journal A book of accounts in which is entered a condensed and grouped

statement of daily transactions

journey An act or instance of traveling from one place to another

jubilation A feeling of extreme joy

judge n: Someone who decides the outcome of a dispute; v: to administer

justice in a court

jurisdiction The power, right, or authority to interpret and apply the law

jurisprudence The branch of philosophy concerned with the law; a system or

body of law

juror Someone who serves (or waits to be called to serve) on a jury

jury A body of citizens sworn to give a true verdict according to the

evidence presented in a court of law

justice The quality or state of being just, impartial, or fair

justify To prove or show to be just, right, or reasonable

juxtaposition The act or an instance of placing two or more things side by side

kernel The inner and usually edible part of a seed, grain, nut, or fruit


key Something that gives an explanation or identification or provides

a solution

kin Group of people related by blood or marriage

kindness The quality of being warm-hearted, considerate, humane, and


knot Any of various fastenings formed by looping and tying a rope or

cord upon itself

labeled Bearing or marked with a label or tag

laborious Involving or characterized by hard or toilsome effort

lace To draw through eyes or holes (“lace the shoes”)

lack To be deficient or missing something

lackadaisical Lacking spirit or liveliness

ladle A deep-bowled, long-handled spoon used especially for dipping up

and conveying liquids

laggard Inclined to waste time and lag behind

lament To mourn aloud

lamentation The act of bewailing; audible expression of sorrow; wailing;


lamented Mourned for

lampoon To make the subject of a harsh satire, usually directed against an


landscape A picture representing a view of natural inland scenery

languidly Without animation; weakly; wearily; heavily; dully

larceny Theft; the unlawful taking of personal property with intent to

deprive the rightful owner of it

latent Concealed; dormant; existing but not developed or manifest

laudatory Expressing praise

lauded Praised; extolled

lava The melted rock ejected by a volcano

lavishly In a rich and extravagant manner

lecture To teach by giving a discourse on some subject

lecturer One who delivers a lecture

legend A story about mythical or supernatural beings or events; a brief

description accompanying an illustration

legendary Fully or widely known

legion A great number; a multitude

legislator A lawgiver; one who makes laws for a state or community; a

member of a legislative body

legislature An organized body having the authority to make laws for a

political unit

leniency A disposition to yield to the wishes of someone

lethargic Morbidly drowsy; dull; heavy; deficient in alertness or activity

lethargy A state of inaction or indifference

levity Lightness, especially in mood

lexicography The principles and practices of dictionary making

liability Debt; obligation; responsibility

liberally In a generous manner

liberating Tending to set free

liberator One who frees (as a country) from domination

libertarian Someone who believes the doctrine of free will

likelihood The quality or state of being probable

limerick A form of light or humorous verse with a specific rhythm and

rhyme scheme (5 chiefly anapestic verses: lines 1, 2, and 5 are of

three feet; lines 3 and 4 are of two feet; rhyme scheme is aabba)

linchpin A central cohesive source of support and stability

linguist A person who specializes in languages

liniment A liquid or semiliquid preparation that is applied to the skin as an

anodyne or a counterirritant

literary Of, relating to, or having the characteristics of humane learning

or literature

lithe Gracefully slender; moving and bending with ease

litigant A person engaged in a lawsuit

livid 1. Ash-colored or anemic looking from illness or emotion; 2: very



loath Unwilling to do something contrary to one’s ways of thinking

loathing Extreme disgust; a feeling of aversion, nausea, abhorrence, or


lobbying Addressing members of a legislative body with the purpose of

influencing their votes

lobbyist Someone who tries to persuade legislators to vote for bills they


locomotive Self-propelled engine used to draw trains along railway tracks

lofty Lifted high up; having great height; towering; high

logic A science that deals with the principles and criteria of validity of

inference and demonstration

long-standing Of long duration

looming Coming into sight in enlarged or distorted and indistinct form

loyalty The quality of being unswerving in allegiance

lubricate To make slippery or smooth with oil or grease

lucid Clear; easily understood; capable of thinking and expressing in a

clear and consistent manner

lull A pause during which things are calm or activities are diminished

lullaby A quiet song intended to lull a child to sleep

luminous Softly bright or radiant; emitting or reflecting usually steady,

suffused, or glowing light

lummox An awkward, clumsy person

lunar Of or relating to the moon

lure 1: Something used to lure victim into danger; bait; decoy; 2: to

draw with a hint of pleasure or gain

lurid Glaringly vivid and graphic; shining with an unnatural red glow

as of fire seen through smoke

lush Produced or growing in extreme abundance

lyric Exuberant; rhapsodic; suitable for singing or being set to music

lyrical Expressing deep personal emotion

lyricist A writer of lyrics

lyrics The words of a song

machinations Covert and involved plottings to achieve usually evil ends

magnetic Possessing an extraordinary power or ability to attract

magnetism An ability to attract or charm

magnify To increase in size, volume or significance

magnitude Great size or extent

mainstream A prevailing current or direction of activity or influence

maintaining Keeping in an existing state

majority The quality or state of being greater

malediction A curse that invokes evil (and usually serves as an insult)

malevolence An evil disposition toward another; an inclination to injure others;

ill will

malfunction To fail to operate normally

malinger To avoid responsibilities and duties by feigning incapacity

malleable Capable of being shaped or bent or drawn out

mandate A document giving an official instruction or command

mane Long and heavy hair growing about the neck and head of some


manifesto A written statement declaring publicly the intentions, motives, or

views of its issuer

manufacturing The organized action of making goods and services for sale

manuscript A written or typewritten composition or document as

distinguished from a printed copy

marine biologist A scientist dealing with the study of sea life

mariners Persons who navigate or assist in navigating a ship; sailors

marred Having the surface damaged or disfigured

mass A large quantity, amount, or number

master To become skilled or proficient in the use of

materialistically With a stress on material rather than on intellectual or spiritual


maturation The process of becoming mature or attaining a final or desired


maverick Independent in behavior or thought

maxim A saying of proverbial nature

meager Deficient in amount, quality or extent

meaningful Having purpose; significant; having an assigned function in a

language system

means Things useful or helpful to a desired end

mechanical Using (or as if using) mechanisms, tools or devices

mechanic One who repairs machines

mechanized Equipped with machinery especially to replace human or animal


meddlers People who interfere with others without right or propriety

mediation Negotiation to resolve differences conducted by some impartial


mediator A negotiator who acts as a link between parties

medieval Of, relating to, or characteristic of the Middle Ages

mediocrity Ordinariness as a consequence of being average and not


meditate To think intently and at length, as for spiritual purposes

medley An assortment or a mixture, especially of musical pieces

meek Not violent or strong

melancholy Depression of spirits

melodious Having a musical sound, especially a pleasing tune

melodrama An extravagant comedy in which action is more salient than


melody A rhythmic succession of single tones organized as an aesthetic


memoir A narrative composed from personal experience

menacing Threatening or foreshadowing evil or tragic developments

mend The repair of a worn or torn place in a garment

mentor A wise and trusted counselor, guide, or advisor

merchants Buyers and sellers of commodities for profit

merciful Full of mercy; having or exercising mercy; compassionate;

unwilling to punish

mercurial Characterized by rapid and unpredictable changeableness of


mercy A disposition to be kind and forgiving

merit To be worthy of or entitled to

merits Praiseworthy qualities

merriment Activities that are enjoyable or amusing

meteorologist A scientist who deals with weather and weather forecasting

meticulous Extremely careful and precise

micron A measure of length equal to the millionth part of a meter

miffed Slightly offended

migration Movement from one country, place, or locality to another

mime To act a part with mimic gesture and action usually without


mimicry Imitation of a person, gesture, etc.

minimize To reduce to the smallest part or proportion possible; to reduce to

a minimum

minister One officiating or assisting the officiant in church worship

minor Comparatively unimportant

mirage An optical illusion caused by atmospheric conditions (e.g., a pool

of water in the desert)

mirth Gladness or gaiety as shown by or accompanied with laughter

mirthful Full of or showing high-spirited merriment

misanthrope A person who hates or distrusts mankind

misconception An incorrect understanding or belief

misdeed Improper, wicked or immoral behavior

misdiagnose To analyze the cause or nature of an illness or situation


misfortune An event or series of events causing an unfortunate or distressing


misgivings Doubts about the fitness of an action

misleading Leading in a wrong direction or into a mistaken action

misnomer The misnaming of a person in a legal instrument; the use of a

wrong name

misperception Mistaken perception or idea; incorrect awareness of the elements

of environment through physical sensation

misrepresent To give a false or misleading representation of, usually with an

intent to deceive or be unfair

mission An operation that is assigned by a higher headquarters

misstate To state something incorrectly

mitigated Made less severe or painful

mock To treat with contempt or ridicule

moderate Professing or characterized by political or social beliefs that are

not extreme

mode A form or manner of expression

modest Marked by simplicity

modicum A small, moderate or token amount

modify To make partial changes in; to make different

mollify To calm or soothe

monarch A person who reigns over a kingdom or empire

monarchy Undivided rule or absolute sovereignty by a single person

monochromatic Having or appearing to have only one color

monologue A dramatic sketch performed by one actor

monopoly A market in which there are many buyers but only one seller

monosyllabic Having, characterized by, or consisting of one syllable

monotonous Tediously repetitious or lacking in variety

monument Something which stands, or remains, to keep in remembrance

what is past

moral Of or relating to principles of right and wrong in behavior

moralistic Characterized by or expressive of a narrow and conventional

moral attitude

morality A doctrine or system of moral conduct

morally In a manner relating to principles of right and wrong in behavior

morass Something that traps, confuses, or impedes

morose Having a sullen and gloomy disposition

motive Something (as a need or desire) that causes a person to act

mourner A person who is grieving over someone who has died

mournful Expressing sorrow

movement A natural event that involves a change in the position or location

of something; motion

mule Sterile offspring of a male donkey and a female horse

multifaceted Having many aspects

multitude The state of being many

mundane Found in the ordinary course of events

munificence Extremely liberal generosity of spirit

mural A big painting applied directly to a wall

mutability Susceptibility of change

mutilate To cut up or alter radically so as to make imperfect

mutter To complain quietly

mutual Reciprocally acting or related; common to or shared by two or

more parties

mystery A profound secret; something which has not been or can not be


mystical Having a spiritual meaning or reality that is neither apparent to

the senses nor obvious to the intelligence

mystify To perplex the mind of; to puzzle

mythical Based on traditional stories and lacking factual basis or historical


myths Traditional stories accepted as history which serve to explain the

world view of a people; imaginary notions

naïve Marked by unaffected simplicity

nap A period of time spent sleeping

narcissistic Having an inflated idea of one’s own importance

narrate To give a detailed account of

narrative Consisting of or characterized by the telling of a story

narrator Someone who tells a story

narrowly In a narrow manner; not allowing for exceptions

nasal Of, in or relating to the nose

nascent Coming into existence; just beginning to be

native Being such by origin

naval Of or relating to ships or shipping

navigable Able to be sailed on or through safely

navigate To guide of steer oneself

necessity The quality or state of being needed or necessary

negate To prove negative; to show to be false

neglect n: Lack of attention and due care; v: to leave undone or unattended

negotiator Someone who confers with others in order to reach an agreement

nervous Sensitive; excitable; timid

nest A structure in which animals lay eggs or give birth to their young

nickname A usually descriptive name given instead of or in addition to the

one belonging to a person, place, or thing

nip To cut off at the very commencement of growth; to kill in the

incipient stage

nocturnal Belonging to or active during the night

nomads People, usually in groups, that have no permanent home but

move about according to the seasons

nonchalance The trait of remaining calm and seeming not to care; a casual

lack of concern

nonconformist One who does not comply to some norm or socially approved

pattern of behavior or thought

nondescript Lacking distinct or individual characteristics; dull and


nonetheless Despite anything to the contrary (usually following a concession)

nostalgic Longing for familiar things or persons, or for a period of time or

an occurrence that has past

notable Worthy of notice; remarkable

noteworthy Worthy of notice

notorious Having an exceedingly bad reputation

nourishing Providing sustenance

nourishment Food; sustenance; that which promotes the growth of

novel An extended fictional work in prose, usually in the form of a story

novel (adj) Original or striking especially in conception or style

novelty Something new or unusual

novice At a first stage of development; just becoming familiar with the

rudiments or skills or routines

nuance A subtle difference in meaning

nudge To push into action by pestering or annoying gently

nursery 1: A room for a baby; 2: a building with glass walls and roof for

the cultivation of plants under controlled conditions

nurtured Fed; nourished; cherished

nutrient 1: Providing nourishment; 2: a nutritive substance or ingredient

nutritious Nourishing

obdurate Stubborn; inflexible

obedience Compliance with that which is required by authority; subjection

to rightful restraint or control

objection A reason or argument presented in opposition

objective Dealing with facts or conditions as perceived without distortion by

personal feelings

objectivity Judgment based on observable phenomena and uninfluenced by

emotions or personal prejudices

obligation That which obligates or constrains; the binding power of a

promise, contract, oath, or duty

obliging Happy to comply

obliterate To remove utterly from recognition or memory

oblivious Lacking conscious awareness of; failing to keep in mind

obscene Designed to incite to lust or depravity

obscure Not clearly understood or expressed

observable Capable of being seen or noticed

observation An act of recognizing and noting a fact or occurrence

observed Discovered or determined by scientific observation; witnessed at

first hand

obsessive Characterized by obsession; excessive often to an unreasonable


obsolete Old; no longer in use or valid or fashionable

obstacle Something immaterial that stands in the way and must be

circumvented or surmounted

obstinacy Resolute adherence to one’s own ideas or desires; stubbornness

obstreperous Marked by unruly or aggressive noisiness

occupy To take up (a place or space)

octopus Bottom-living cephalopod having a soft oval body with eight long


offbeat Deviating from an established or usual pattern or style

offend To transgress the moral or divine law

official One who holds an office; one having official authority or sanction

ointment Any of various substances resembling cream that have a healing

or soothing

effect when applied to the skin

olfactory Of, relating to, or connected with the sense of smell

ominous Menacing; threatening

omnipotence The quality or state of having unlimited authority or influence; an

agency or force of unlimited power

7omnipresent Present in all places at all times

omniscience The quality or state of having infinite awareness, understanding,

and insight

onerous Not easily borne; wearing

onset The beginning or early stages

opinion A personal belief that is not founded on proof or certainty

opponent One that takes an opposite position

opportunist A person who takes immediate advantage, often unethically, of a

circumstance of possible benefit; self-seeker

opportunity A possibility due to a favorable combination of circumstances

opposing In opposition to; characterized by active hostility

oppressive Unreasonably burdensome or severe

optimistic Anticipating the best possible outcome

opulent Rich and superior in quality; exhibiting a display of great wealth

oration An elaborate discourse, delivered in public, treating an important

subject in a formal and dignified manner

orator A person who delivers a speech or oration

orbit A path described by one body in its revolution about another

orchard A small cultivated wood without undergrowth

order Specified sequence, succession, etc.

ore A source from which valuable matter is extracted

organic Involving the use of food produced without employment of

chemically formulated fertilizers

organism A complex structure of interdependent and subordinate elements

organized Formed into a structured or coherent whole; methodical and

efficient in arrangement or function

orientation Position or alignment relative to points of the compass or other

specific directions

origin The first existence or beginning of anything; the point at which

something begins or from which it derives

original Preceding all others in time or being as first made or performed

ornament That which embellishes or adorns; that which adds grace or


ornate Elaborately ornamented

orthodox Conforming to established doctrine

ossify To become hardened or conventional and opposed to change

ostentatious Indulging in showy or pretentious display

ostracism The state of being banished or excluded from society by general


outcast A person who is rejected (from society or home)

outcome Something that follows as a result or consequence

outdated Old; no longer in use or valid or fashionable

outlandish Strikingly out of the ordinary

outline A preliminary account