Gargantuan Vocabulary List Part II

contrary n: A fact or condition incompatible with another; adj: opposite

contrast To compare or appraise in respect to differences

contribute To give or supply in common with others

contribution Act of giving in common with others for a common purpose

contrite Feeling or expressing pain or sorrow for sins or offenses

controversial Marked by or capable of arousing debate

controversy A discussion marked especially by the expression of opposing


conundrum A difficult problem

convene To come together

convention General agreement or concurrence; usage or custom especially in

social matters

conventional According with, sanctioned by, or based on convention; lacking

originality or individuality

convergence The occurrence of two or more things coming together

converse To engage in an interchange of thoughts and opinions

convey To impart or communicate by statement, suggestion, gesture, or


conviction An unshakable belief in something without need for proof or


convoluted Highly involved or intricate

coop A small building for housing poultry

cooperative Done with or working with others for a common purpose or


copious Profuse or exuberant in words, expression, or style; plentiful in


cordial Hearty; sincere; warm; affectionate

coronation The ceremony of installing a new monarch

corporate Of or belonging to an association of employers and employees in a

particular business or industry

corps Military unit usually consisting of two or more divisions

correspondence Communication by letters

corroborate To make strong, or to give additional strength to; to strengthen

corrosive Destructive; weakening; bitingly sarcastic

corrupt Dishonest, immoral or evasive; characterized by improper

conduct or fraudulent activity

corruption Impairment of integrity, virtue, or moral principle

cosmetic Done or made for the sake of appearance

cosmopolitan Of worldwide scope or applicability

cost-effective Economical in terms of tangible benefits produced by money


counter To act in opposition to; to oppose

counteract To make ineffective or neutralize the usually ill effects of an

opposing force

counterintuitive Contrary to what one would immediately expect or naturally


coup A sudden and decisive change of government, illegally or by force

couple (v) To fasten together; to link

courageously Bravely

course A path over which something moves

courteously In a polite manner

courtesy Consideration, cooperation, and generosity in providing

coverage Press or publicity received by a particular story or person

cover To overspread the surface of one thing with another

craft The skilled practice of an occupation or trade requiring manual

dexterity or artistic skill

craftiness Shrewdness as demonstrated by being skilled in deception

crammed Pressed, forced, or stuffed

crass So unrefined as to be lacking in discrimination and sensibility

creation Something that has been brought into existence

creativity The quality of being imaginative

credulity Tendency to believe readily

creeds Sets of fundamental beliefs

creep To move along the ground, or on any other surface, on the belly

crescendo Gradually increasing in volume

crest The summit of a hill or mountain ridge

crevice A narrow opening resulting from a split or crack (as in a cliff)

crew The company of seamen who man a ship or vessel

crews Groups of people associated together in a common activity or by

common traits or interests

crib A small, enclosed bedstead or cot for a child

crisis An unstable or crucial time or state of affairs in which a decisive

change is impending

criterion A basis for comparison; a reference point against which other

things can be evaluated

critic One who expresses a reasoned opinion on any matter especially

involving a judgment of its value

critical Of, relating to, or being a turning point or specially important


criticism Disapproval expressed by pointing out faults or shortcomings

criticize To point out real or perceived flaws; to consider the merits and

demerits of and judge accordingly

critique An essay or article that gives a critical evaluation (as of a book or


crop A plant that can be grown and harvested; the annual yield of


crosscurrent A conflicting tendency

crude Conspicuously and tastelessly indecent

crust The hard exterior or surface of bread, in distinction from the soft

part or crumb

cryptic Having or seeming to have a hidden or ambiguous meaning;


cub The young of certain carnivorous mammals such as the bear and

the lion

cue A stimulus that provides information about what to do

cuisine Manner of preparing food; style of cooking

culinary Of or relating to the kitchen or cookery

culpable Deserving blame or censure as being wrong, evil or injurious

cultivate To prepare and/or use for the raising of crops

cultivation The act of preparing the land to grow crops

cultural Denoting or deriving from or distinctive of the ways of living built

up by a group of people

culture The customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a

racial, religious, or

social group

cumbersome Difficult to carry or manage due to bulk or shape

cumulative Increasing by successive addition

cunningly In an artful manner

curator The custodian of a collection; one in charge of a museum, zoo, or

other place of exhibit

curb An edging (as of concrete) built along a street to form part of a


curiosity Desire to know

cursory Rapidly and often superficially performed or produced

curtail To diminish; to reduce

custom Long-established practice considered as unwritten law

cynic Someone who is critical of the motives of others

cynical Contemptuously distrustful of human nature and motives

dam A barrier to prevent the flow of a liquid

dandy A man who is much concerned with his dress and appearance

dapper Neat and trim in appearance

dash A small usually distinctive addition

data Factual information used as a basis for reasoning, discussion, or


database One or more large structured sets of persistent data, usually

associated with software

dated Old-fashioned; outmoded

daunt To lessen the courage of

deadline A date or time before which something must be done

debased 1: mixed with impurities; 2: lowered in value

debt The state of owing

debtor One who owes a debt

debunkers Those who expose the falseness or sham of something

deceit An attempt or disposition to deceive or lead into error

deceive To cause someone to believe an untruth

deception A misleading falsehood; false representation; a trick or sham

decibel A unit of sound intensity

decision A report of a conclusion

decisive Having the power or quality of resolving a question or controversy

decorous Marked by propriety and good taste

decorum Propriety and good taste in conduct or appearance

decry To censure as faulty, mean, or worthless; to express strong

disapproval of

dedicate To commit to a goal or way of life

deduction Something that is inferred from something else; something

removed or taken away

deed A usually illustrious act or action; feat

deems Thinks or judges; believes

defeat Frustration by nullification or by prevention of success

defeated Beaten or overcome

defective Imperfect in form or function

defendant A person against whom an action is brought in a court of law

defensive Attempting to justify or defend in speech or writing

deferment The act of postponing or delaying

defiance Willingness to contend or fight

defiant Boldly resisting authority or an opposing force

deficit A loss; a lacking; an impairment; a disadvantage

defied Rejected, refused, or renounced

definable Capable of being defined, limited, or explained

defining Determining or explaining the shape of something

definitive Decisive; unconditional; final

defraud To deprive of by deceit

defunct No longer in force or use; inactive

defuse To make less harmful, potent or tense

defy To resist or confront with resistance

delegate To entrust to the management of another; to transfer

deleterious Harmful often in a subtle or unexpected manner

deliberate To think about or discuss issues and decisions carefully

deliberately With forethought; purposely; with awareness of the consequences

delineate To determine the essential quality of; to trace the shape of

delinquency Conduct that is out of accord with accepted behavior or the law

delusion A persistent false psychotic belief regarding the self or persons or


demagogue An orator who appeals to the passions and prejudices of his


demeanor Behavioral attributes

democracy Government by the people; rule of the majority

democratic Relating to, appealing to, or available to the broad masses of the


democratizing Making democratic

demolish To throw or pull down; to raze; to destroy the fabric of; to pull to

pieces; to ruin

demonstrative Given to or marked by the open expression of emotion

demure Affectedly modest or shy, especially in a playful or provocative


demystify To make less mysterious or remove the mystery from; to reveal or


denigrated Belittled; charged falsely or with malicious intent; defamed

deny To disclaim connection with or responsibility for

deodorize To eliminate the odor from

depict To represent by or as if by a picture

depleted Lessened markedly in quantity, content, power, or value

depose To force to leave an office, such as a king

deprecate To disapprove of strongly

depreciate To lessen in price or estimated value; to lower the worth of; to


depression A psychoneurotic or psychotic disorder marked especially by

sadness and inactivity

deprive To withhold something from

depth Extent downward or backward or inward

derelict Deserted or abandoned as by an owner; failing in what duty


deride To laugh at with contempt; to laugh; to scorn; to turn to ridicule

or make sport of; to mock; to scoff at

deriding Subjecting to usually bitter or contemptuous ridicule

derivative That which is derived; anything obtained or deduced from


derived Formed or developed from something else; not original

descent A downward movement

description The act of giving a verbal or written account

desert An arid, barren, often sand-covered area of land,

characteristically desolate and without much vegetation

desiccated Dried up; dehydrated

designated Indicated and set apart for a specific purpose

designed Done or made or performed with purpose and intent

desirability The quality of having pleasing qualities or properties

desirous Impelled or governed by desire

desolate Deserted; uninhabited; sorrowful through or as if through

separation from a loved one

despair Utter loss of hope

despondent Feeling or showing extreme discouragement, dejection, or


destination Place where something (e.g., a journey or race) ends; the ultimate

goal for which something is done

destined Headed or intending to head in a certain direction

destitute Lacking possessions and resources

destitution A state without friends or money or prospects

detailed Marked by abundant thoroughness in treating small items or


deter To discourage; to inhibit

detergent A cleansing agent

determine To fix conclusively or authoritatively

detour A roundabout road (especially one that is used temporarily while

a main route

is blocked)

detract To take away a part from; to diminish

detractor One who disparages or belittles the worth, importance, or

effectiveness of something

devaluation The reduction of worth (as in currency)

devastated Made uninhabitable; ravaged; ruined; wasted

developed Changed over time so as to be stronger or more complete or more


development Advancement or growth through progressive changes

devious Characterized by insincerity or deceit; evasive; deviating from a

straight course

devise To form in the mind by new combinations or applications of ideas

or principles; to invent

devoid Completely lacking

devotion Religious fervor; fidelity

dew Moisture condensed upon the surfaces of cool bodies especially at


dexterity Mental skill or quickness

diagnosis Investigation or analysis of the cause or nature of a problem,

condition, or situation

dialect The language usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a

specific group of people

dichotomy A division or the process of dividing into two especially mutually

exclusive or contradictory groups or entities

dictatorship Autocratic rule, control, or leadership

didactic Excessively instructive

differentiate To mark or show a difference in

diffidence Lack of self-confidence; shyness, unassertiveness

diffidently In a reserved, unassertive, or shy manner

diffuse Spread out; not concentrated in one place

dignified Having or expressing dignity; formal or stately in bearing or


dignitary One who possesses exalted rank or holds an office or position of


digress To divert from the main subject; to wander from a direct or

straight course

digression A turn aside from the main subject of attention or course of


dilatory Characterized by procrastination; tending to cause delay

dilemma An argument presenting two or more equally conclusive

alternatives against an opponent

dilettante Showing frivolous or superficial interest; amateurish (“his

dilettantish efforts at painting”)

diligence The attention and care legally expected or required of a person

diligent Careful and steady in application to one’s work or duties

dim Not bright; lacking in intensity

diminish To decrease in size, extent, or range; to lessen the authority,

dignity, or reputation of

diminutive Below the average size; very small; little

dingy Thickly covered with ingrained dirt or soot; depressing in

character or appearance

director Someone who supervises and conducts the action and the

performers in the production of a staged or filmed dramatic work

dirge A song or hymn of mourning

disapprobation The act or state of disapproving

discard To throw away; to lay aside

discarding Getting rid something that is regarded as useless or undesirable

discern To perceive clearly with the mind or the senses; to recognize; to

distinguish; to tell apart

discernible Perceptible by the senses or intellect

discharge To relieve of a charge, load, or burden

discipline Control gained by enforcing obedience or order

disclosed Made known (especially something secret or concealed); no longer


disclosure The act of exposing; something revealed

discolored Changed in color; stained; faded

discomfited Put into a state of perplexity and embarrassment; disconcerted

disconcert To throw into confusion; to disturb the composure of

discouraged Made less hopeful or enthusiastic

discourse An extended communication (often interactive) dealing with some

particular topic

discourteous Showing no courtesy; rude; lacking social graces

discredit To damage the reputation of; to reject as false; to refuse to accept

discreet Marked by prudence or modesty and wise self-restraint

discrepancy A conflict between facts, claims, or opinions

discrete Constituting a separate entity or part; individual

discrimination Noting and marking differences; discernment

discursive Tending to depart from the main point or cover a wide range of


disdain To look upon with scorn and contempt

disfigured Spoiled the beauty of; deformed; defaced

disheveled Marked by disorder or disarray

disingenuous Not straightforward or candid; giving a false appearance of


disinterested Not having the mind or feelings engaged

dismiss To reject serious consideration of

dismissed Removed from position or service; discharged

disparage To lower in rank or reputation; to degrade

disparate Fundamentally different or distinct in quality or kind

disparity Inequality or difference in some respect

dispassionate Not influenced by strong feeling

dispatch To send off or away promptly

dispel To cause to vanish; to clear away

disperse To cause to break up, spread, evaporate or vanish

displace To expel or force to flee from home or homeland

display Something done in order to communicate a particular impression

disposal The act or means of getting rid of something

disposition Usual or prevailing mood

disprove To overthrow by argument, evidence, or proof

disproved Proved to be false or wrong

disputant One who argues; a reasoner in opposition to another

dispute To contend in argument

disregard To treat as unworthy of regard or notice

disreputable Lacking respectability in character or behavior or appearance

disrupt To throw into disorder

disruptive Characterized by unrest, disorder, or insubordination

disseminate To spread; to diffuse

dissenting Differing in opinion

dissipate To cause to separate and go in different directions

dissolution The act or process of dissolving; separation into component parts

dissonance A mingling of discordant sounds, esp. those that seem musically


distant Separated in space or by time

distaste A feeling of intense dislike

distinguish To perceive a difference in

distinguished Of high standing; eminent; famous

distortion The act of twisting out of natural or regular shape

distracted Mentally confused, troubled, or remote

distressed Worried or troubled

disturb To interfere with

disturbing Interfering with

diverge To move or extend in different directions from a common point

divergent Differing; deviating from each other

diverse Differing from one another

diversion An activity that diverts, amuses, or stimulates; a turning aside (of

one’s course or attention or concern)

divert To occupy in an agreeable, entertaining, or pleasant fashion

divination A prediction uttered under divine inspiration

divine Of, relating to, or proceeding directly from God or a god

divining Foreseeing or foreknowing

divisive Creating disunity or dissension

divulge To make known to the public information that was meant to be

kept a secret

docile Submissive; easily managed

doctrinal Pertaining to, or having to do with, teaching

doctrine A principle of law established through past decisions; something

that is taught

documented Furnished documentary evidence of

dodo 1: (informal) someone whose style is out of fashion; 2: extinct

heavy flightless bird of Mauritius related to pigeons

dogged Stubbornly unyielding; obstinately determined; persistent

dogmatic Characterized by arrogant assertion of unproved or unprovable


domestic Of or relating to the household or the family

dominance The fact or state of commanding, controlling, or prevailing over


dossier A file containing detailed records on a particular person or


downpour A pouring or streaming downward; a heavy rain

downright Given without reservation; outright

drabness Lacking stylishness or brightness; dullness

draft A preliminary sketch, outline, or version

draftee An individual who is engaged to enter the army

drama A state, situation, or series of events involving interesting or

intense conflict of forces

dramatic Striking in appearance or effect

dramatist A writer of plays

drawback A loss of advantage, or deduction from profit, value, success, etc.;

a discouragement or hindrance

drawing (in) Causing or enticing to enter or participate

dread Fearful expectation or anticipation

dreary Depressing in character or appearance

drench To steep in moisture; to wet thoroughly; to soak; to saturate with

water or other liquid; to immerse

drill A tool that cuts with its end, by revolving or by a succession of


drive An urgent, basic, or instinctual need

drivel Words or language having no meaning or conveying no intelligible


drought The continuous absence of rain

drubbed Beaten with a stick; thrashed

dual Consisting of or involving two parts or components, usually in


dubious Of questionable value or truth

dupe To deceive; to trick; to mislead

duplicate An exact copy of the original

durable Able to exist for a long time without significant deterioration

duress Compulsory force or threat

dynamic Marked by usually continuous and productive activity or change

earnestness An intense and serious state of mind; seriousness

easel A frame for supporting something (as an artist’s canvas)

eccentric Deviating from conventional or accepted usage or conduct,

especially in odd or whimsical ways

echo A repetition or imitation of another

eclectic Composed of elements drawn from various sources

ecology The branch of biology concerned with the relations between

organisms and their environment

economics Analysis of the production, distribution, and consumption of

goods and services

ecstatic Feeling great rapture or delight

edition The form or version in which a text is published

editor A person who prepares, superintends, revises, and corrects a

book, magazine, or newspaper, etc., for publication

effect An outward sign

effective Producing a decided, decisive, or desired effect

efficacious Having the power to produce an intended effect

efficiency The quality or degree of being the immediate agent in producing

an effect

effort A serious attempt

effrontery Impudent aggressiveness; shameless boldness

effusive Unrestrained in enthusiasm; excessively demonstrative

egoism An ethical theory that treats self-interest as the foundation of


egotist A conceited and self-centered person

egregious Conspicuously and outrageously bad or reprehensible

elated Exultantly proud and joyful; in high spirits

elation A state marked by high spirits

elders Aged persons; persons having authority by virtue of age and


election An act or process of choosing or selecting, as in a political contest

elegy A mournful poem; a lament for the dead

element A constituent part; something connoting irreducible simplicity; a

basic component

elevated Brought from a lower place to a higher one

elicit To draw forth or bring out (something latent or potential)

elliptical Characterized by extreme economy of expression or omission of



elocutionist A public speaker trained in voice production, gesture and delivery

eloquence Discourse marked by force and persuasiveness

eloquent Marked by forceful and fluent expression

elucidate To make free from confusion or ambiguity; to make clear

elude To escape, either physically or mentally; to be incomprehensible


elusive Tending to evade grasp or pursuit

embellish To make beautiful or elegant with ornamentation

embellishment A superfluous ornament; the act of adding extraneous

decorations to something

embezzle To take fraudulently for one’s own use

embittered Caused to feel cynical and rancorous

embody To represent or express something abstract in tangible form

embrace To include in scope; to include as part of something broader; to

take up readily or gladly; to hug

embroidery Decorative needlework

emend To make improvements or corrections

emerge To come out into view, as from concealment; to happen or occur

as a result of something

emigrate To leave one’s country of residence for a new one

emissary Someone sent on a mission to represent the interests of someone


emollient Having a softening or soothing effect, especially to the skin

empathetic Showing empathy or ready comprehension of others’ states

empathy Understanding and entering into another’s feelings

emperors Sovereigns or supreme male monarchs of an empire

emphasis Special importance or significance

emphasize To place force or intensity of expression on

empire A major political unit having a territory under a single sovereign


empirical Derived from experiment and observation rather than theory (“an

empirical basis for an ethical theory”)

employee One who provides work or service for a wage or salary

emulate To strive to equal or match

enable To provide with the means or opportunity

enabling Giving strength or ability to

enact To order by virtue of superior authority

enamored Marked by foolish or unreasoning fondness

encapsulate To put in a short or concise form; to reduce in volume

enchanting Capturing interest as if by a spell

enclosed Closed in or surrounded or included within

encompassing Broad in scope or content; all-inclusive; closely encircling;


encore An extra or repeated performance, usually given in response to

audience demand

encounter A meeting, especially between hostile parties

encourage To inspire with courage, spirit, or hope

encroaching Gradually intrusive without right or permission

encyclopedia A work that contains information on all branches of knowledge

encyclopedic Broad in scope or content

endangered In imminent danger of extinction (said of plants or animals)

endeavor To attempt (as the fulfillment of an obligation) by exertion of effort

endorse To be behind; to support or vote for; to give support or one’s

blessing to

endurance The power to withstand hardship or stress; a state of surviving;

remaining alive

endure To undergo (as a hardship) especially without giving in

enervated Weakened mentally or morally; unnerved

enforce To ensure observance of laws and rules; to compel or impose

enfranchised Endowed with the rights of citizenship, especially the right to vote

engaged Attracted and held by influence

engendered Caused to exist; brought forth; produced; sowed the seeds

engine A mechanical tool

engineering The practical application of science to commerce or industry

engross To take or engage the whole attention of

enhance To advance; to augment; to increase or improve in value, quality,

desirability, or attractiveness

enlighten To give spiritual insight to; to make free from confusion or

ambiguity; to make clear

enlightening Tending to increase knowledge or dissipate ignorance

enlightenment The act or means of furnishing knowledge

enmity Positive, active, and typically mutual hatred or ill will

enraged Filled with rage or anger; infuriated

enrich To make rich or richer especially by the addition or increase of

some desirable quality, attribute, or ingredient

enrichment Improvement of the nutritive value by adding nutrients

enroll To register formally as a participant or member

ensemble A cast other than the principals; the chorus of a musical; a group

of supporting players, singers, or dancers

ensure To make sure, certain, or safe

entangle To make complicated

enthrall To hold spellbound; to enrapture

enthusiasm A feeling of excitement

enticement The art of attracting artfully or adroitly, or by arousing hope or


entitlement A right to benefits specified especially by law or contract

entry A person, thing, or group entered in a contest

entrust To commit to another with confidence

enviable Causing envy; highly desirable

ephemeral Enduring a very short time (“the ephemeral joys of childhood”)

epidemic A widespread outbreak of an infectious disease

epilogue A short speech (often in verse) addressed directly to the audience

by an actor at the end of a play

episode A usually brief unit of action in a dramatic or literary work

equality The quality or state of being equal or of the same measure

equanimity Steadiness of mind under stress

equate To treat, represent, or regard as equal, equivalent, or comparable

equivocal Subject to two or more interpretations and usually used to

mislead or confuse

equivocation A use of obscure language especially with intent to deceive

era An event or point in time from which a series of years is reckoned;

the succession of years from that point in time

eradication The complete destruction of every trace of something;


erratically In an unpredictable manner (“Economic changes are proceeding


erroneous Containing or characterized by error

eruption A bursting from limits or restraint

escapism Habitual diversion of the mind to purely imaginative activity

espionage The practice of spying or using spies

espousal A taking up or adopting of a cause or belief

espouse To choose and follow, as of theories, ideas, policies, strategies or

plans (“She espoused the feminist movement”)

essential Of the utmost importance; necessary

establish To bring into existence

established Made firm or stable

establishing Instituting (as a law) permanently by enactment or agreement

esteem To set a high value on; to regard highly and prize accordingly

estimation The act or an instance of forming an opinion about; evaluation

estrangement The arousement of mutual enmity or indifference where there had

formerly been love

etching A pattern or design produced on a hard material by eating into

the material’s surface

eternal Continuing forever or indefinitely

ethical Involving or expressing moral approval or disapproval

ethos Guiding beliefs of a person, group, or institution

etymology The history of a word; the study of the sources and development

of words

eulogize To speak or write in high praise of

euphoric Exaggerated feeling of well-being or elation

evade To slip away; to avoid; to elude

evaluate To determine or fix the value or worth of

evanescence The property of lasting for a very short time

evanescent Tending to vanish like vapor

evasive Elusive; shuffling; avoiding by artifice

evergreens Trees and shrubs including forms (as pines) with true cones

everlasting Continuing forever or indefinitely

evidence That which furnishes, or tends to furnish, proof

evolution A process of change in a certain direction

evolve To undergo a change or development; to come up with; to

gradually acquire new traits or characteristics

ewe Female sheep

exacerbate To make worse (“This drug exacerbates the pain”)

exaggerate To enlarge beyond bounds or the truth

examined Inspected closely

exasperate To cause irritation or annoyance to

exasperation A feeling of annoyance; the act of causing great irritation or even


excavation The act of digging; the site of an archeological exploration

exceeding Going beyond a set limit

excel To go beyond or surpass in good

exception A case to which a rule does not apply

excerpted Selected (as a passage) for quoting

excessive Beyond normal or necessary limits

excitability The quality of being readily excited or roused; proneness to be

affected by exciting causes

exclude To bar from participation, consideration, or inclusion

exclusive Not divided or shared; excluding much or all but a particular

group or minority; belonging only to a few

excruciating Agonizing; torturous

exculpate To clear from alleged fault or guilt

excursion A journey taken for pleasure (“many summer excursions to the


execution The act or result of performance; a putting to death as a legal

penalty; the

process of enforcing a legal judgment

exemplary Fit to be imitated; outstandingly good; commendable

exemplify To show or illustrate by example

exempt To release or deliver from some liability or requirement to which

others are subject

exert To put forth force, ability, or anything of the nature of an active


exhibit n: Something shown to the public; v: to show or display

outwardly especially by visible signs or actions

exhilarating Giving life, action, or spirit to; enlivening; refreshing; stimulating

existing Having real being whether material or spiritual

exonerate To relieve, in a moral sense, as of a charge, obligation, or

hardship; to clear from accusation or blame

exorbitant Greatly exceeding bounds of reason or moderation

expand To increase the extent, number, volume, or scope of; to open

wide; to spread out

expansive Impressive in scale; extensive, wide-ranging

expedite To accelerate the process or progress of; to speed up; facilitate

expedition An organized group of people undertaking a journey for a

particular purpose

experimentation The trying out of a new procedure, idea, or activity

expert Having, involving, or displaying special skill or knowledge derived

from training

expiate To make amends for

explanation Thought that makes something comprehensible

explanatory Serving or intended to explain or make clear

explication The act of opening, unfolding, or explaining

explode To burst forth with sudden violence or noise from internal energy

exploit A notable or heroic act

exploited Developed or used to greatest advantage

explore To become familiar with by testing or experimenting; to analyze;

to make or conduct a search

explorer A person who travels in search of information (esp. geographical

or scientific)

export To carry or send (as a commodity) to some other place

express To give or convey a true impression of

expropriated Taken out of the possession of another and transferred to your

own use, often without permission

expulsion The state of being expelled (forced out)

expunge To strike out, obliterate, or mark for deletion

extant Still in existence; not extinct or destroyed or lost

extemporaneous Composed, performed, or uttered on the spur of the moment, or

without previous study

extensive Having wide or considerable extent

extent The range over which something extends or stretches out

extenuating Partially excusing or justifying (“extenuating circumstances”)

extenuation The act of lessening or weakening the seriousness or extent of


exterminator One who gets rid of something completely, usually by killing off

external Purely outward or superficial

extinct No longer existing; no longer burning; no longer active

extol To praise, glorify, or honor highly

extraordinary Going beyond what is usual, regular, or customary

extrapolate To infer, estimate, or project into an area not known or


extrasensory Seemingly outside of the normal or known senses

extravagant Exceeding the limits of reason or necessity

extremist One who advocates extreme political measures

extricate To free, as from difficulties or perplexities

extrinsic Extraneous; lying outside; not belonging (to); originating or

operating from without

extroverted Gregarious and unreserved; outgoing

exuberance Joyful enthusiasm; overflowing with enthusiasm

exuberant Joyously unrestrained and enthusiastic

exultant Joyful and proud especially because of triumph or success

fabric Something made by weaving or felting or knitting or crocheting

natural or synthetic fibers

facile Performed adroitly and without effort

faction A party or group (as within a government) that is often

contentious or self seeking

faculty The body of teachers and administrators at a school

fainthearted Lacking courage or resolution

fallacious Based on an incorrect notion or misleading information

fame The state or quality of being widely honored and acclaimed

familiarity A state of close relationship; intimacy

famine A severe shortage (especially a shortage of food)

fantasy The free play of creative imagination

fascinate To transfix and hold spellbound by an irresistible power

fascinating Extremely interesting or charming

fashionable Having elegance or taste or refinement in manners or dress

fastidious Difficult to please

fatalistic Believing that all events are predetermined and therefore


fate An event (or course of events) that will inevitably happen in the

future; destiny

fathom To measure depths with a sounding line, as of a body of water

fatigue Temporary loss of strength and energy resulting from hard

physical or mental work; a lack of vitality

faulty Having a defect; characterized by errors

feast An elaborate meal often accompanied by a ceremony or


federal Of or relating to the central government of a federation

felicitous Exhibiting an agreeably appropriate manner or style; marked by

good fortune

felony A grave crime for which the punishment in federal law may be

death or more than one year of imprisonment

feral Wild and menacing; savage

ferocious Exhibiting or given to extreme fierceness and unrestrained

violence and brutality

fertile Marked by great fruitfulness

fertilization An act or process of fecundation, insemination, or pollination

fertilizer Any substance such as manure or a mixture of nitrates used to

make soil more fertile

fervent Exhibiting or marked by great intensity of feeling

feud Mutual enmity or quarrel that is often prolonged or inveterate

feverishly In a manner marked by intense emotion, activity, or instability

fib A trivial lie

fickle Marked by erratic changeability in affections or attachments

fiction That which is feigned, invented, or imagined; a feigned or

invented story, whether oral or written

fictitious Formed or conceived by the imagination; adopted in order to


figurative 1: metaphorical, not literal; 2: of pictorial or sculptural


figure A diagram or picture illustrating textual material

file A set of related records (either written or electronic) kept together

filter n: A porous material that removes something from whatever

passes through it; v: to remove things with a filter

finalist A contestant in the ultimate stages of a competition

fine A sum imposed as punishment for an offense

finite Having definite or definable limits

firebrand Someone who deliberately foments trouble

fission A nuclear reaction in which a massive nucleus splits into smaller

nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy

fixed Having a set and unchanging value

flabbergasted Overwhelmed with astonishment and surprise

flagrant Conspicuously offensive

flamboyant Elaborately or excessively ornamented

flammable Capable of being easily ignited and of burning quickly

flap n: A state of excitement or agitation; something that generates an

uproar; v: to move with a thrashing motion

flaunt To wave or flutter showily; to display ostentatiously

flaw An imperfection or fault

flexibility The quality of being adaptable or variable

flight The act of escaping physically; the act of passing through the air

with wings

flippancy Unbecoming levity or pertness, especially in response to grave or

sacred matters

flippant Lacking proper respect or seriousness

flipper The flat broad limb of aquatic animals specialized for swimming

flock A group of birds or mammals assembled or herded together

flopping Swinging or moving loosely

florid Elaborately or excessively ornamented

flourish To grow vigorously; to thrive; to prosper

flout To mock or insult; to treat with contempt

flowing Moving in a stream

fluent Ready or facile in speech

fluid A substance tending to flow or conform to the outline of its


flyer An advertisement (usually printed on a page or in a leaflet)

intended for wide distribution

focused Concentrated on or clustered around a central point or purpose

foes Enemies; opponents

foil Someone or something that serves as a contrast to another

(“acted as a foil for a comedian”)

foolhardy Marked by unthinking boldness; with defiant disregard for danger

or consequences

footnote A note of reference, explanation, or comment usually placed

below the text on a printed page

foppish Affecting extreme elegance in dress and manner

forbid To command against; to keep from happening or arising; to have

the effect of preventing

force Strength or energy exerted or brought to bear; cause of motion or

change; active power

forceful Vigorous; powerful; compelling; impressive

forecast To calculate or predict

foreign Relating to, originating in, or characteristic of another place or

part of the world; introduced from an outside source

forensics The art or study of argumentative discourse

foresight Providence by virtue of planning prudently for the future

foretell To tell beforehand

foreword A short introductory essay preceding the text of a book

forge A workplace where metal is worked by heating and hammering

forgeries False imitations made especially with intent to defraud

forgettable Likely to be forgotten; not memorable

forlorn Sad and lonely due to desertion or abandonment; marked by or

showing hopelessness

formality A requirement of etiquette or custom

format The general appearance of a publication

formidable Of extremely impressive strength or excellence which inspires

great respect or awe

formulate To come up with; to invent

fort A strong or fortified place; usually, a small fortified place,

occupied only by troops

forthright Directly forward

fortitude Strength of mind that enables one to endure adversity with


fortuitous Having no cause or apparent cause; occurring by happy chance

forum A public meeting or assembly for open discussion; a public place

to meet for open discussion

foster To cherish; to promote the growth of; to encourage; to sustain

and promote (“to foster genius”)

fractious Quarrelsome; unruly

fracture To cause a fracture or fractures in; to separate the continuous

parts of

fragile Easily broken or destroyed

fragmentation The separation of something into smaller pieces or units

fragrant Affecting the olfactory nerves agreeably; sweet of smell; odorous;

having or emitting an agreeable perfume

frame A case or border enclosing a picture, window, door, etc.

frankness Free, forthright, and sincere expression

fraternize To associate; to make friends; to behave as intimates

fraud Intentional deception resulting in injury to another person;

deliberate trickery intended to gain an advantage

fraudulent Intended to deceive; dishonest

freight Goods carried by a large vehicle

frenetic Marked by madness or emotional agitation

frenzied Affected with a violent mental or emotional agitation

friction The resistance encountered when one body is moved in contact

with another

frigid Extremely cold

fringe A group with marginal or extremist views

frivolity The quality or state of lacking seriousness and sensibility

frugal Economical in the use or appropriation of resources; not wasteful

or lavish

frugality The economic use of resources

frustration A feeling of annoyance at being hindered or criticized

fugitive One who flees from pursuit, danger, restraint, service, duty, etc.

fumigate To purify or free from infection by the use of smoke or vapors

function A mode of action or activity by which a thing fulfills its purpose

fundamental A leading or primary principle, rule, law, or article, which serves

as the groundwork of a system; essential part

fungus A parasitic plant lacking chlorophyll, leaves, and true stems and

roots, and reproducing by spores